Forensic science is used to help solve crimes and there are many types of forensic methods/ disciplines.
1. Forensic toxicology- refers to the use of toxicology to determine what chemicals are present in the body after earth.
2. Forensic psychology- deals with the study of various human behaviors.
3. Criminalistics- is the application of sciences to situations in an attempt to achieve answers. This is commonly used in the area of fingerprints, tire tracks, or foot impressions.
4. Forensic DNA analysis- is used to determine the DNA sequence from biological samples.
5. Forensic anthropology- the application of physical anthropology in a legal setting
6. Cyber forensics- the gathering of digital data that is used in the court of law.
7. Forensic engineering- the investigation of materials, products, structures or components that fail to operate or do not function as intended.
8. Forensic entomology- the use of insects, and their arthropod relatives that inhabit decomposing remains to aid in legal investigations.
9. Forensic odontology- the study of all dentition of all human beings
This is just but the tip of the iceberg in forensics, there are a whole lot of topics ranging from bugs to DNA and all branches are used in actual criminal investigation.
A comprehensive list on other forensic related disciplines is discussed on Fields of Forensic Science.
Crime scene investigators have special equipment that they use to investigate crime scenes. This equipment is packed into crime scene kits. They include
Fingerprint powders designed to find fingerprint on surfaces, brushes, magnetic powder wands, and placards for making important forensic evidence, tape, scissors, tweezers, tape, pencils and pens.
Chemicals for detecting bodily fluids like luminal and black lights.
Bodily fluids can be the most valuable piece of evidence because it can yield DNA, the holy grail of proof.